Over the past few days, some of our readers have reported that they cannot find the cisco_ipsec module.
On rare occasions, someone can corrupt the GRUB bootloader data. This article shows you how to reinstall the CentOS/RHEL GRUB bootloader on a Six or 6 machine.
How Do You Know GRUB Is Broken
Here are some of your current symptoms that you might see if GRUB is usually bootloader corruption.
1. The GRUB menu is not displayed, in which the boot server
2. Boot the system in recovery mode using the installation DVD and check the title of each boot disk if the GRUB bootloader is corrupted:
The output may vary from version to version, but the key point is that the first output ignores “code offset 0x48”, which is a GRUB level 0 code flag.
Assume that the drive is currently booted using sda, the par partition is sda2, and the /boot partition is sda1.
1. Start the server in save mode and mount the file system immediately. Please refer to the template below to run the server in hideout mode.
2. The / partition can be automatically mounted to /mnt/sysimage. If not, mount te manually:
3. Manually mount the /boot and /dev partitions by preparing the chroot environment:
Restart the web server and you should be able to see the GRUB return menu.
Reinstall Grub On The Device
Use the following steps to manage multiple paths if a server configured for stealth access from a storage area network (SAN) with multipath devices requires a fresh grub installation. Grub needs to be reinstalled if the master boot record (MBR) on the boot device is corrupted and overwritten by other bootloaders. This is also necessary in situations where the post-installation boot device is changed to boot from a SAN configuration after a successful server installation, or when a superior single-path SAN boot device needs to be reconfigured to become multipath.
1. Boot an existing server into recovery mode with multipath enabled using the bootable linux Rescue mpath product. To view your current multipath configuration, you can run the following command in the recovery environment:
2. Change /etc/fstab to use multipath device descriptors (/dev/mapper/mpathX) instead of simple ones like (/dev/sdY) to mount /boot. We recommend using the /boot UUID to, I would say, make device identification more reliable.
3. Add a multipath device to grub with /boot and install the bootloader with:
# file -s /dev/sda/dev/sda: x86 sector; Partition 1: ID=0x83, active, boot header 1, boot sector 63, 64998927 sectors; Partition ID = 0x82, 2: boot head 254, boot sector 64998990, sectors 2104515
# file -s /dev/sda/dev/sda: x86 shoe sector; Partition 1: ID=0x83, healthy, boot header 1, boot sector 63, 64998927 sectors; Partition ID = 0x82, 2: boot head 254, boot sector 64998990, sectors 2104515, decode 0x48
# mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/sysimage
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/sysimage/boot# put -o bind /dev /mnt/sysimage/dev# chroot /mnt/sysimage
#grubgrub > device (hd0) /dev/mapper/mpathagrub > heart (hd0.0)grub > configure (hd0)grub> exit
grub-installI get an error like “Error 12: Invalid approach requested”
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